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Democracy is the power of the people, by the people, for the people. It is a political system, which starts from the needs of the people and arrives at the establishment of a way of life, to live together so that everyone can find their way there. No country is democratic taking this definition into account, the current political systems lead to violence, misery, injustices. We can free ourselves from fear, by freeing ourselves from duality.
THE artist is the creator of beautiful things.
To reveal art and conceal the artist is art’s aim.
« The picture of Dorian Gray »
by Oscar WILDE
The endocrine system, the targeted and coordinated multiplicity to balance the functioning of the body:
The number to act in depth
The endocrine system is dispersed and critical for regulating the major functions of the body.
There are many hormones that interact at target sites (cells and tissues) even from a long distance, releasing hormones into the circulating blood flow.
Here are the tissues and organs involved in the endocrine system with their distribution in the body:
- In the brain: the hypothalamus, the pineal gland, the pituitary gland;
- In the neck: the thyroid gland, the para-thyroid glands, the thymic gland;
- In the thorax: the heart;
- In the abdomen: the digestive tract, the adrenals, the pancreatic islets, the kidneys;
- In the pelvis: the ovaries, the testicles;
- At the tissue level: adipose tissue, some connective tissue cells, white blood cells.
Hormones can act on a wide variety of cellular interactions involving communication:
- Autocrine: on a cell of the same type or on the cell having, itself produces the signal ;
- Paracrine: on a cell in the nearby of the emitting cell;
- Endocrine: at a great distance through the blood flow;
- Neurocrine: like a neurotransmitter but released into the circulating blood flow.
The endocrine system, along with the nervous system and the immune system, facilitates communication, integration and regulation of many body functions.
Unique configurations to punctuate life
Puberty only occurs once in life, between 10 and 14 years, for the functional maturity of the reproductive organs in both sexes, and the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics.
The following events occur:
- The hypothalamus increases its level of gonadoliberin (GnRH) release;
- GnRH stimulates the production of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) by the anterior pituitary gland;
- In the female sex: LH targets the ovaries stimulating the production of androgens transformed into estrogen, LH also stimulates the production of progesterone, and FSH stimulates the production of estrogen from androgens;
- Estrogens are responsible for modifications of the accessory sexual organs and secondary sexual characteristics recognizable at puberty;
- In the male sex: LH acts on the testes to stimulate the production of testosterone, testosterone and FSH act together on the testicle to promote the development of the spermatozoa;
- Testosterone is responsible for the modifications of the accessory sexual organs and the secondary sexual characteristics recognizable at puberty.
Pregnancy is also a unique, non-cyclical event, which induces a particular set of hormones, but unlike puberty, it can occur several times in life or never.
Cycles to accord the present
During the day, depending on our activity, the fact that we eat, that we sleep …, the energy needs of the body can be reversed.
The main fuels in the body are glucose, fatty acids and ketones (derivatives of fatty acid metabolism).
The pancreas secretes, among other things, two hormones with opposite hormonal functions.
Glucagon, the hormone for energy mobilization:
- Glucacon acts on the liver to degrade glycogen and stimulate hepatic neoglucogenesis from amino acids;
- There is an increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood;
- It also acts on adipose tissue to stimulate lipolysis and the release of fatty acids.
- The overall effect of glucagon is to increase blood levels of glucose, fatty acids and ketones.
Insulin, the energy storage hormone:
- Insulin secretion rises with increasing plasma glucose level, especially after meals;
- It stimulates the cellular penetration of glucose, where it is stored in the form of glycogen (particularly in the liver and muscles);
- It also stimulates the formation of fats and inhibits lipolysis;
- It stimulates the cellular entry of amino acids and their storage in the form of proteins.
- The overall effect of insulin is to lower blood glucose and ketone levels.
There are many other hormones that interact at different levels and locations in the human body to regulate and coordinate the body.
Let’s use the feedback from hierarchical exchanges to harmonize our relationships:
If we consider Humanity as a human body,
where each of Us communicates with our environment;
We will be able to know what is happening at every point of the globe
and adjust when necessary, our way of life;
Humanize the World,
we will balance together
climate change, the spread of the coronavirus,
as the endocrine system unites for the well-being of the organism as a whole.
– The information on the endocrine system is taken from the book « The Netter’s Anatomy Coloring Book », John T. HANSE, Elsevier Masson SAS, 2017 (the french version).